Its northernmost section, Arnhem Land (much of which is an aboriginal reserve), faces the Arafura Sea in the north and the huge Gulf of Carpentaria on the east.On the eastern side of the gulf is the Cape York Peninsula, which is largely covered by woodland.
Brisbane is the capital; other important cities are Gold Coast, Toowoomba, Townsville, Rockhampton, Cairns, and Ipswich...... 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the S and E by the Indian Ocean, Bass Strait, and the Tasman Sea. Other important cities are Geelong, Ballarat, and Bendigo...... 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state...... 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. 132,780), 520,280 sq mi (1,347,525 sq km), N central Australia. 276,468), 939 sq mi (2,432 sq km), SE Australia, an enclave within New South Wales, containing Canberra, capital of Australia.It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the N by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea, and the Gulf of Carpentaria. It was called the Federal Capital Territory until 1938......(an enclave within New South Wales, containing Canberra).Australia's external territories include Norfolk Island, Christmas Island, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and the Australian Antarctic Territory. (50.8 cm) of precipitation falls annually over 70% of the land area. 359,286), 26,383 sq mi (68,332 sq km), SE Commonwealth of Australia.It is separated from Australia by the Bass Strait and lies 150 mi (240 km) south of the state of Victoria...... 3,097,956), capital of New South Wales, SE Australia, surrounding Port Jackson inlet on the Pacific Ocean.
Sydney is Australia's largest city, chief port, and main cultural and industrial center; roughly one fourth of Australia's population lives in the..... 2,761,995), capital of Victoria, SE Australia, on Port Phillip Bay at the mouth of the Yarra River.
Melbourne, Australia's second largest city, is a rail and air hub and financial and commercial center...... 2,477,152), 667,000 sq mi (1,727,200 sq km), NE Australia. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill...... 3,770,684), 87,884 sq mi (227,620 sq km), SE Australia.
The Australian continent extends from east to west some 2,400 mi (3,860 km) and from north to south nearly 2,000 mi (3,220 km). From the narrow coastal plain in the west the land rises abruptly in what, from the sea, appear to be mountain ranges but are actually the escarpments of a rough plateau that occupies the western half of the continent.
It is generally from 1,000 to 2,000 ft (305–610 m) high but several mountain ranges rise to nearly 5,000 ft (1,520 m); there are no permanent rivers or lakes in the region.
In the southwest corner of the continent there is a small moist and fertile area, but the rest of Western Australia is arid, with large desert areas.
The northern region fronts partly on the Timor Sea, separating Australia from Indonesia; it also belongs to the plateau, with tropical temperatures and a winter dry season.